For a wound too deep (which extends through the dermis layer) or too wide to heal on its own, skin graft surgery can reduce tissue exposure, reduce secondary infection and enhance wound healing. It can also help restore physical appearance and functions that might be hindered by scars. Skin graft surgeries can facilitate wound healing.
It is usually done by taking part of the skin from the uninjured site and grafting it to the deep wound. Thighs, scalp, back or abdomen are usually the chosen donor sites. The deep wound is the graft site.
Scars are products left on the skin after the wound caused by trauma or surgery heals. They will stay on the skin almost permanently and are difficult to remove by external force. Uneven or large and ugly scars can be diminished and reduced to barely visible scars by scar treatment, but they cannot be removed completely.
The first step of scar prevention is correct wound care. Regardless of trauma, scalds, skin infection or surgery, the resultant scars are left on the skin after wound healing. In principle, the fast a wound heals, the less the scar will be; the longer it takes for a wound to heal, the more severe the scar will be. Theoretically, the chance of forming hypertrophic scar increases significantly if the healing time takes longer than 3 weeks.
Due to different constitutions, some people will have scars that turn into keloids which not only affect the appearance but also create the nuisance of itchiness. If during the maturation process the alignment of collagen is uninterrupted and is well aligned, the scar will be light-colored and even with clear edges on both sides without hypertrophy or lumps. On the contrary, if the alignment of collagen is interrupted or misaligned, the chance of hypertrophic scar formation will increase. Accurate wound care and sun protection can prevent formation of abnormal scars. It is advised to take scar prevention measures as early as possible to reduce the chance of scar formation.
Inflammatory response in the bone caused by bacterial infection, resulting in abscess and damage to the bone. Bacteria usually enter the bone via blood circulation; however, osteomyelitis can also develop through soft tissue infection spreading into the bone, or via a puncture wound into the bone, such as infection caused by open fracture (skin rupture exposing the bone to external environment).
Failure to treat osteomyelitis during the acute phase tends to result in relapse which may further turn into chronic osteomyelitis, which means that an unhealed wound with persistent secretion may sometimes close up automatically but start secreting pus after a while, over and over again.
For most patients receiving radiation therapy, radiation dermatitis is almost inevitable. These involve primarily tissue damages and a series of inflammatory responses due to exposure to therapeutic radiation dose. Serious complications caused by the treatment can even lead to ulceration and infection. At the beginning, the patient will have redness, swelling, heat, pain and erythema at the exposure site. With accumulation of radiation dose during the treatment, erythema may turn into dry desquamation, moist desquamation or even skin ulceration, which means the radiation has damaged the basal cell layer, sweat glands and sebaceous glands.
Patients receiving hemodialysis need optimal blood vessel patency to allow blood flow from the blood tubing and artificial kidney back to the body via diffusion and dehydration. Hemodialysis (dialysis) can lower the level of uremic toxins in the blood and reduce edema to achieve the result of kidney replacement. Arteriovenous fistula is the lifeline of dialysis patients. Excellent fistula care can extend the lifespan of fistula. Neglecting the daily precaution of fistula can result in narrowing of blood vessel lumen, slower blood flow that blocks the fistula and eventually leads to incomplete dialysis.